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  • Writer's pictureDr. P.K. Shrivastava

BM SCHEME ADVOCATES USE OF SPECIAL BREEDING TECHNIQUES- SSS & ETT

Govt of India is offering 200 lakhs subsidy to the dairy entrepreneurs if they establish a technically managed "Breed Multiplication Farm". The implementing and monitoring agency of the project is National Dairy Development Board (NDDB).


Normally, in India AI (Artificial Insemination) is used to breed the dairy animals. Where the semen from elite bulls are used for propagating the genetic character of high milk production. AI is very common breeding technique for dairy animals. With the practice of AI service, the use of natural service (NS) has reduced a lot, however, it is not yet stopped. The NS has several drawbacks, which is generally not known by the Indian farmers.


During the Operation flood I & II (OF I & II), implemented from 1970 till 1996, NDDB carried the mandate to increase per animal milk production and transporting milk from surplus areas to flood the deficit markets in the country. NDDB used its genuine efforts, involving the District Cooperative Milk Unions and Federations of the country to implement the Operation Flood (OF) program, which was funded by the world bank and it was a successful program for dairy development. India became the highest milk producing country in the world and still continuing at the top position for the past more than 26 years. Still, there is no country which would come close to India, as far as the total milk production by a country is concern.


Though India holds about 22% of the global milk share, it stands at 15th position when it comes to "per animal milk production". During the efforts of NDDB and Milk Cooperatives to improve per animal milk production, the attention skipped from the indigenous breeds, and the Indian cow breeds were slightly left behind, while the buffalo continued to progress and be upgraded.


Thanks to the A2 milk controversy in New Zeeland during 2003, generated by Mr Howard Paterson and Dr Corran McLachlan, owners of the A2 Milk Company against the Fonterra, a dairy cooperative company which owned more than 90% milk producing farms membership in New Zeeland. This was during 2003, when the controversy erupted claiming that "A1 milk causes Type-1 diabetes, Heart diseases, Autism and Schizophrenia", which did not prove at scientific forums and finally the Commerce commission of New Zeeland has to compel A2 milk company to withdraw its claims, using A2 milk as medicine for above human diseases.


The controversy between A2 milk company and Fonterra ended by the end of 2003. The A2 Milk company marketed their dairy products in Australia, UK, etc. As a result of the A1-A2 controversy, the consumers became aware that A2 milk is a different milk than A1. Same thought travelled to India and people started looking for A2 milk, considering it is rich in medicinal value, which was further supported by some of the religious preachers of India.


This GOI scheme of "Breed Multiplication" addresses both (1) the low productivity per animal and (2) promote rearing of indigenous cows/ buffalo, which indirectly address the increasing demand of the A2 milk (especially the milk from the indigenous breeds of cows).


Breeding techniques:


The scheme allows using two breeding techniques (1) through the sex shorted semen (SSS) of high genetic potential bulls (2) Embryo Transfer Technology (ETT). It does not allow use of normal AI or NS. If a foreign breed of cows are to be reared in the BMF, compulsorily the ETT has to be used to produce indigenous animals.


The following 2 figures will depict the benefits of SSS and ETT:


Figure 1: AI with Sex Shorted Semen (90% female calves and 10% male calves)


The figure-1 indicates that an indigenous cow having genetic potential of producing 2000 liter milk per lactation can produce a cow in F1 (1st generation) which can produce 4000 liter milk per lactation and in F2 (2nd generation) 5000 liter milk/ lactation, if the SSS is used for AI. The normal AI can't give this benefits. In addition the SSS gives benefits of getting 90% female calves, which general AI can't offer.


Slide: by Dr PK Shrivastava, Dairy Business Guru, M/s Dairy Consultancy India



Figure 2: ETT (Embryo Transfer Technology):


ETT gives opportunity to increase milk production from 3000 liter per lactation to 7500 liter milk per lactation in F1 (1st generation). However, the success rate of ETT is said to be 45-50%.

Slide: by Dr PK Shrivastava, Dairy Business Guru, M/s Dairy Consultancy India


These 2 advance breeding technologies can be further understood by raising email queries by the readers to our following email, if required.


The writer:

Dr PK Shrvastava

"Dairy Business Guru"

M/s Dairy Consultancy India, Bangalore

Ph: +91 8073147467

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